Thursday, December 5, 2019

Ethical accountability of accountants - Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss about the Ethical accountability of accountants. Answer: Introduction Ethics constitute a vital part of any organization and profession as it conveys affinity of an organization or a profession has with moral values. Accounting is a profession that requires extreme precision and hard work as it deals with the financial assets of individuals and organizations. Although following maintaining ethical standards is not obligatory for accountants, it does hold an important place in the profession. The report deals with the ethical aspects of accounting and tries to provide logical and valid argument in favor of the need for ethics in accounting. In addition, the report elaborates on the role and function of accountants and their accountability to any individual or organization. The report tries to justify that accountants do need to be ethical because the profession demands complete transparency. Role of accountants Accountants are entrusted with the task to collect, record, analyze, calculate and check the accuracy of the financial statements and statistics for an organization, an individual or a company. Overall, the accountant has three primary roles to perform that include collection of financial data, entering the data collected and generating report. The data mainly relates to the finances of any company. Apart from collecting financial data, the accountant also has the responsibility to establish and monitor control procedures. The accountant is also responsible for ensuring that all the financial statistics of a company are published within the given time. Accountants also collaborate with financial professionals belonging to the major sectors like management, government accounting, internal auditing and public accounting. They provide financial data to governmental organizations, nonprofits, tax professionals and others. In addition, accountants given financial advice to the company or firm they work for and help those manage and recover from any financial crisis. Hooks and Stewart (2015) hold the view that the role of an accountant has changed with time and it is now more driven towards profit than disseminating information. The growing competition has compelled companies to better their financial records. This has thus resulted in the elevated importance of the role of accountants in producing concrete and sound financial reports for organizations, believes Shuttleworth (2014). According to the author, accounting has acquired a significant role in the functioning of an organization especially post globalization. Accounting professionals have the daunting task to provide authentic information to the public regarding the financial status of both private and government agencies. This requires them to be genuine and honest. They are bound to implement sound moral decision in all the activities they perform related to accounting (Durocher, Gendron and Picard 2015). They are trusted with the unique responsibility to give professional services to clients while presenting an ingenuous and correct estimation of the financial health of a company or an organization to the public. In order to carry out this task, accountants have to consider certain ethical principles that ensure nothing is hidden from the people. Chawla et al. (2015) argue that accounting ethics is essential in understanding the greater role of the accountants in matters of finance. They further point out that ethics in accounting has been marginalized in the study of management further escalating the issues relating to frauds in accounting. Ethics in accounting ensure upholding of public trust and companys reputation. The ethical codes are set by certain organizations that act as watchdogs of public trust invested upon accountants. Integrity, confidentiality, competence, and behavior are some of the parameters that fall under the ethical code of conduct for accountants. Voss (2017), views that ethical values in accounting comprise an important part in the implementation of economic entities. He further adds that these standards of ethics also help in presenting consistent monetary information used by the stakeholders when taking significant decisions. Numerous cases of fraud engulf the world of accounting thus confirming the paramount need for accountants to be ethical. The later section shall shed light on this issue (Theguardian.com 2018). Accountants need to be ethical A look at the financial frauds and scandals of the last few decades expose the pity picture of the ethical standards followed in the accounting profession. McCann, Offoha and Bryant (2015), highlighted the deterred reputation of the accounting profession while drawing upon scandals such that of Enron and others. They stressed on the issue of the coverage of ethics as an important subject for management students. In the recent years, there has been a significant rise in the importance of ethical studies in professional accounting. Students pursuing management and accounting studies have to understand the value of ethics before taking up accounting as a career. According to Bhasin (2016), the absence of strong ethical guidelines and stern laws in accounting profession lead to the breach of moral code of conduct. He however argues that accountants often succumb to the pressure of higher authorities who want them to manipulate data for companys profit. In cases like this, it comes down to the individual who is in charge of the task whether he or she would put the ethical values at stake to save their job. Ethics hence must not only govern how an accounting professional should perform the job, but it also must administer the way organizations function. A company comprises various departments that oversee its daily functions and apply high-level expertise to make sure it is leading the market race. In a pursuit to achieve targets within deadline, the management often resolves to unethical ways by forging data and statistics. The accountants are the ones who assist managers forge figures and analysis so that they can be ahead of their rivals. However, in doing so, accountants break the trust of the public who put faith in the company or organization they work for. In a very recent case of breach in accounting ethics, the US-based firm Deloitte compromised the security of millions of its stakeholders when in 2017; its cyber security was hacked (Fortune.com 2018). This brought forward the firms failure to adhere to the ethical code of conducts that includes confidentiality and professional competence both of which, the company failed to maintain. In the views of Mirshekary and Carr (2015), ethicality in accountants and accounting firms is cannot be induced forcefully as it needs a personal sense of morality. However, some might argue that rather than asking accountants to follow ethics or be ethical, one should ask the firm or organization to implement strong ethical guidelines. It is but also true that accountants face ethical and professional dilemmas in their workplace when they are left with no choice but surrender. The ethical framework formed by the Association of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) amongst other demand every accountant and accounting firms to comply with the ethical codes. With an understanding of these frameworks, the accounting professionals can make better decisions and help uplift the professions reputation (Mirshekary and Carr 2015). This summarizes that rather than asking whether accountants need to be ethical or not, the question must be framed as un der what circumstances they need to be ethical. Conclusion In the end, it can be stated that accountants must always follow the ethical code of conduct set by the regulatory bodies. However, the circumstances under which they break the ethical codes must also be scrutinized. Accountants are not the antagonists or trust-breakers always, they face dilemmas that are difficult to comprehend. Sterner and stricter rules must be framed for the organizations and companies to follow and even sterner laws against the breach of these rules. The report presented a logical argument in favor of the accountants need to be ethical. The roles performed by the accountants and the companies have been mentioned in the report as well. Further, the report highlighted cases of accounting fraud that furthers the need. References: Bhasin, M.L., 2016. Survey of Creative Accounting Practices: An Empirical Study.Wulfenia Journal KLAGENFURT,23(1), pp.143-162. Chawla, S.K., Khan, Z.U., Jackson, R.E. and Gray, A.W., 2015. Evaluating ethics education for accounting students.Management Accounting Quarterly,16(2), p.16. Durocher, S., Gendron, Y. and Picard, C.F., 2015. Waves of global standardization: Small practitioners' resilience and intra-professional fragmentation within the accounting profession.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,35(1), pp.65-88. Fortune.com 2018.Deloitte Gets Hacked: What We Know So Far. [online] Fortune. Available at: https://fortune.com/2017/09/25/deloitte-hack/ [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018]. Hooks, J. and Stewart, R., 2015. The changing role of accounting: From consumers to shareholders.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,29, pp.86-101. McCann, J.T., Offoha, E. and Bryant, R., 2015. Student Perceptions of Accounting and Business Scandals on the Accounting Profession.British Journal of Economics, Management Trade, pp.326-341. Mirshekary, S. and Carr, R., 2015. Effects of exposure to unethical practices on the personal attitudes of accountants in small accounting firms.Journal of Management Organization,21(1), pp.98-106. Shuttleworth, C.C., 2014. Perspectives of accounting students and teachers on the changing role of management accountants in organisations.Southern African Business Review,18(2), pp.140-162. Theguardian.com 2018.The world's biggest accounting scandals. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jul/21/the-worlds-biggest-accounting-scandals-toshiba-enron-olympus [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018]. Voss, G., 2017. Certificate of Ethics in Accounting and Professional Independence of Accountants.European Journal of Economics and Business Studies,9(1), pp.212-220.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Human Genome Project Essay Thesis Example For Students

The Human Genome Project Essay Thesis The Human Genome ProjectThe Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort with the goal ofanalyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of theestimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will bestudied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioningof the human genome. The information gathered by the human genome project isexpected to be the source book for biomedical science in the twenty-firstcentury and will be of great value to the field of medicine. The project willhelp us to understand and eventually treat more than 4,000 genetic diseases thataffect mankind. The scientific products of the human genome project will includea resource of genomic maps and DNA sequence information that will providedetailed information about the structure, organization, and characteristics ofhuman DNA, information that constitutes the basic set of inheritedinstructions for the development and functioning of a human being. We will write a custom essay on The Human Genome Project Thesis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The Human Genome Project began in the mid 1980s and was widely examinedwithin the scientific community and public press through the last half of thatdecade. In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) initially, and theNational Institutes of Health (NIH) soon after, were the main research agencieswithin the US government responsible for developing and planning the project. By1988, the two agencies were working together, an association that was formalizedby the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding to coordinate research andtechnical activities related to the human genome. The National Center for HumanGenome Research (NCHGR) was established in 1989 to head the human genome projectfor the NIH. NCHGR is one of twenty-four institutes, centers, or divisions thatmake up the NIH, the federal governments main agency for the support ofbiomedical research. At least sixteen countries have established Human GenomeProjects. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National ResearchCouncil (NRC) prepared a report describing the plans for the US human genomeproject and is updated as further advances in the underlying technology occur. To achieve the scientific goals, which together encompass the humangenome project, a number of administrative measures have been put in place. Inaddition, a newsletter, an electronic bulletin board, a comprehensiveadministrative data base, and other communications tools are being set up tofacilitate communication and tracking of progress. The overall budget needs forthe effort are expected to be about $200 million per year for approximately 15years. Lasers are used in the detection of DNA in many aspects of the project;a very important use is in sorting chromosomes by flow cytometry. Lasers arealso used in confocal fluorescence laser microscopy to excite fluorescentlytagged molecules in genome mapping, in addition to other mapping uses. Indiagnostic applications, lasers are used with fluorescent probes attached to DNAto light up chromosomes and to create patterns on DNA chips. From the beginning of the human genome project it was clearly recognizedthat acquisition and use of such genetic knowledge would have momentousinvolvements for both individuals and society and would pose a number ofconsequential choices for public and professional deliberation. As Thomas Lee writes, the effort underway is unlike anything everbefore attempted, if successful, it could lead to our ultimate control of humandisease, aging, and death. Whatever its justification, the human genome project has alreadyinspired society with the hope of better babies, and one way to deploypragmatism in the analysis of genetic engineering is to look at this promise ofbetter babies in its social context: parenthood. Parents hope for healthychildren and, if they could afford it, make choices (such as choosing parentalcare) to help engineer healthier babies. Genetic engineering seems in thisrespect to offer the brightest hope for parents. Through germ-line therapy,disastrous, but genetically discrete diseases, such as Huntingtons and cysticfibrosis could be removed from the DNA of the egg or zygote. Clearly parentswould follow the model in choosing to avoid a short, painful life for theirchildren. .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 , .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .postImageUrl , .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 , .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:hover , .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:visited , .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:active { border:0!important; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:active , .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6 .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf17e6e1dab3e9e8db7f52eb6fc3c09c6:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Enlightenment EssayAnother more reasonable fear is that we have not the slightest idea whatwe are doing and ought to avoid making hasty choices. Hybrid varieties are oftenimpossible to protect from the complexities and dangers of nature. In the humancondition, this is the possibility of making an error and creating a geneticallyadvanced baby who cannot cope with an imperfect world. While much of societyreports a willingness to modify DNA for the purpose of heightening intelligence,education about genetics and medicine is still in its beginning. Jonathan Glover argues for a pragmatism of risks and benefits, writingthat, The debate on human genetic engineering should become like the on nuclearpower: one in which large possible benefits have to be weighed against bigproblems and great disasters. One significant element is the assertion that genetic engineering isradically different from any other kind of human medicine, and constitutesinterference in a restricted area, trying to play God. As Robert Wright notes, Biologists and ethicists have by now expendedthousands of words warning about slippery slopes, reflecting on Nazi Germany,and warning that a government quest for a super race could begin anew ifgenetic engineering ventures too far. In my opinion, I believe that, if and only if, a deadly disease isdetected, then the scientists and/or doctors should tap into the DNA of a zygoteor egg for testing and absolute knowledge of the steps of the procedure must bepresent. I do not believe that there should be a genetically advanced child inthe world, everyone is created equal and nobody should have their destinychanged for any reason. Science

Monday, November 25, 2019

Soft drink industry Essay Example

Soft drink industry Essay Example Soft drink industry Essay Soft drink industry Essay The stretch of competitive exploits and reactions among companies under the soft drinks industry has shaped the competitive dynamics in the trade in the sense that the competitors in the industry have rivaled one another in terms of the products they offer and the target market. For example, the attempts of Coca-Cola and Pepsi to focus ahead into soft drinks bottling have established the element of ‘capacity’ as a primary aspect in the industry (Fahey). However, the competitive dynamics in the soft drinks industry is also affected by huge alterations in the commercial environment (Fahey).In essence, the competitive dynamics in the soft drinks industry serve as one indicator that the market itself is operating on a standard cycle market. One of the crucial factors that determine the cycle market in this industry is the season or the annual weather cycles as well as the climate in various geographical territories. As these changes determine the supply and consumption level s of the products, these changes also tend to revitalize the product image. The packaging of Coca-Cola, for example, has undergone notable updates throughout its production and distribution although the â€Å"essential product of Coca-Cola remains relatively static (Hunt).† In general, these changes in turn create perceptions from competitors, prompting them to address these changes by creating something of their own.Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and Virgin Cola are three of the top soft drinks competitors in the industry which have both their distinct specific product images and their commonalities in terms of overall product packaging and consumers. While Coca-Cola has succeeded in maintaining their ‘ribbon’ logo or icon throughout the years, Pepsi has made attempts at recreating its own logo. Although Virgin Cola has also been able to maintain its distinct logo, it nevertheless has expanded in terms of its name, placing the same ‘Virgin’ labels to the added v arieties to its line of products.Competitive actions, or the important efforts done firms in order to achieve competitive edge in the industry, also share a significant portion in the commercial environment among soft drinks firms.   Three of the major competitive actions that occurred in the industry within the past two years include competitive pricing, stock availability, and promos. For instance, Coca-Cola, being extensively dispersed globally, constantly adopts low-cost operation (Davidson, Keegan and Brill). The same is true for Pepsi and Virgin Cola in terms of adjusting product prices as a tactical action in relation to the rates offered by the competitors. Stock availability and promotional campaigns, with the former being a strategic action and the latter being a tactical one, also share a vital role in the actions taken by these firms in obtaining a higher status above the rest.Looking into the future, the competitive positioning and importance of major industry competi tors will significantly change in the next five years for several reasons. These changes are considerably determined by consumption and supply levels on both the international and local scales. Further, the technological changes that lead to lifestyle changes also contribute to shifts in the strategies and tactics and, hence, in the competition among the firms in the soft drinks industry. With the recent technological advancements in the line of production, these firms will eventually adopt the most viable means of extending and increasing their productivity rates and, consequently, their distribution capabilities.In essence, the next five years will create a series of changes in the whole industry of soft drinks, extending not only within a specific geographical border but also within the expanse of the world, reaching the farthest places and bringing to these spots the changes that these firms constantly adopt in order to survive the competition and, probably, to obtain a comparat ive advantage above the rest.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Must write an individual report of 1500 words. This report must be Essay

Must write an individual report of 1500 words. This report must be based on the consumer focussed web site you are due to presen - Essay Example Thus, website development is highly crucial and it should be mainly designed using a customer centric approach so that it can steal the show among their existent competitors in the market (Chaffey and Dave, 2008, p. 152). I am a member of a website development team who is developing a website which deals with laundry products and apparels. The paper will focus on my justifications regarding the Internet market techniques along with other crisp business strategies which will be highly useful in making our website stand well in the competitive front. Promotion of Brand Awareness The promotion of brand awareness is one of the crucial parts to highlight the website and is one of the benevolent strategies of the e-commerce industry. The brand awareness must be executed in such a manner that the customers receive detailed and rational information regarding the firm and its offerings. This technique can be used as a signal to the current and prospective customers, which will state that the customer is on the cutting edge. I will develop a model with product differentiation strategies along with an image rich message with a tag line which should be in line with the actual performance of the products of delivery. Another stylized technique which I will apply to promote the website is AdWords which are an established mechanism of targeting the potential customers and establishing brand awareness at a reasonable price. I would also be posting some testimonials from our pleased customers along with a few photographs of our ways of functioning to support the services offered in my website. Target Audience Another major decision is the selection of target customers. The market has to be segregated into subparts of customers and sections should be set in the order of priority. Since our website focuses on the marriage laundry, domestic and hotel laundry, the market will be divided into subparts and focus on the micro analysis. People think of marketing management as finding a s many customers as possible and increasing demand. But it is not the right policy and it is not possible for the marketing manager to serve all the customers coming in their way. Trying to serve all the customers, it would not be possible to serve any of the customers properly. So in our area of target, our top priority will be on the marriage sector as well as the hotel sector. For example, Holt Renfrew and Harry Rosen stores profitably target affluent professionals; Dollarama stores profitably target families with more modest means. The advertisement budget will also have to be considered and will be concentrated on key areas. The main things which will be taken into consideration are targeting, demographics, key words and the budget. Keeping a close watch on this, our target customers can be attracted (Website Promotion, 2012). Creating Value Proposition The value proposition of the company